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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE-TO-ENERGY POWER PLANTS by MIZUN LTD

                   Did you know that 4 tons of waste is equal to 1 ton of oil? And waste can be turned into electricity? Wait no more.

      In full swing, a waste-to-energy (W2E), or energy-from-waste plant can convert municipal and industrial solid waste into heat & electricity, an ecologically sound, cost-effective means of energy recovery with less carbon emission.


  It works by burning waste at high temperatures and using the heat to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that creates electricity.


     * PRINCIPLE SCHEME of the WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS:


                                                        MSW
                          principle diagram


    Today it is possible to recover 90 percent of the metals contained in the bottom ash. And the remaining clinker can be reused as road material. It is also one of the most robust and effective alternative energy options to reduce carbon emissions and replace fossil fuels.

     For example,in Europe 50 million tons of waste is converted into valuable energy through waste-to-energy technology, supplying 27 million Europeans with electricity. The state-of-the-art WTE plants have the lowest level of emissions of all industrial sectors.

    Unlike most renewable energies that are intermittent, the project will provide base-load renewable energy, that is very much competitive in terms of reliability, sustainability and low generation cost

    Our updated CHP(Combined heat&power) MIZUN technology uses the MSW “as is collected in the streets”, which means: without any prior sorting nor classification.

    The pollution is FULLY controled by the innovative patented CATALITIC CONVERTERS, to meet the WHO clean air standards.

   Thus, the footprint of the complete W2E power station is smaller than the classic ones, saving costly land and expensive shredder equipment.

 
  MIZUN offers the FINAL DISPOSAL of the MSW generated by small towns from 3000 inhabitants and up.


  *** Feedstocks for our HT MSW-to-energy (HT W-2-E) plant

   Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

     MSW, the most abundant waste form on the planet, is an ideal feedstock for our HT W-2-E plants. Learn what constitutes MSW, where it comes from, and why it is great for Energy production.

     Municipal solid waste (MSW) is defined as waste containing everyday items “such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries,” which come from “homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses" . 

    For example, in 2014, people in USA produced over 258 million tons of MSW. The majority of this waste is sent to landfills which in 2013 collected an average tip fee of $49 per ton (EPA, 2014). This rate of trash generation translates to over 1,600 pounds produced by a single person in a year.

     For a landfill, the weight of the trash does not matter as much as the volume. Items like Styrofoam, crumpled paper, and empty bottles and cans take up a disproportionate amount of space for their weight. In other words, trash is very light for its volume, relatively speaking.

     Let's assume an average density for trash of 0.33 grams per cubic centimeter and that there are 300 million people living in the United States. This means that 300 million people, each producing 4.4 pounds of trash per day, generate 23.42 billion cubic feet of trash per year! If you made the pile of trash 400 feet deep (as tall as a 40-story building), it would cover more than 1,000 acres of land...

     Medical Waste

     Medical waste is generated by health care facilities such as hospitals, clinics, physicians’ offices, dental practices, blood banks, veterinary centers, medical research facilities and laboratories. This waste contains hazardous biological contaminants that require stringent handling and disposal methods. Pharmaceutical industry waste also requires intensive disposal to ensure that chemicals do not leach into water and soil at the disposal site. Current disposal methods are very costly due to these high risks.

    The diseased parts removed are not fit as an incineration waste. The parts containing deadly virus must be disposed in other ultra-safe manner.

     Medical and pharmaceutical waste have a moderately high carbon content but a low proportion of ash and volatile matter. The typical energy content of medical waste is 15-16 megajoules per kilogram of waste (MJ/kg) or roughly 14-15 million BTUs per metric ton of waste (MMBTU/MT).

     Hazardous Waste

     Hazardous waste comes in many forms and includes discarded commercial products, cleaning fluids, pesticides, and manufacturing byproducts.
    Hazardous wastes tend to be dangerous and/or toxic and harmful to human health and the environment. The U.S. generated over 35 million tons of hazardous waste each day in 2009. 

    Hazardous waste is regulated into four classifications according to the EPA:

  1. Listed Wastes

  2. Characteristic Wastes

  3. Universal Wastes

  4. Mixed Wastes

    Listed wastes are specific wastes that are known to be hazardous, and are classified into three categories. The "F-list" is for non-specific source wastes that are commonly produced in manufacturing/industrial processes such as cleaning solvents. They are classified as "non-specific" because they come from various sectors of industry. The "K-list" wastes are source-specific wastes coming from certain defined industries such as petroleum refining or pesticide manufacturing. These waste streams include certain sludges and wastewater. The "P-list" and "U-list" wastes are for specific commercial chemical products including some pesticides and pharmaceutical products.

    Characteristic wastes are wastes that are not listed wastes, but may still be considered hazardous if it exhibits one of four characteristics defined to be ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity.

    Universal wastes are common wastes that are widely generated. Examples include batteries, some pesticides, mercury-containing equipment, and lamp bulbs.

    Mixed wastes are wastes that contain both radioactive and hazardous waste components. The treatment and regulation of this waste type is complex regulated by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) There are several classifications of Mixed waste:  low-level mixed waste (LLMW), high-level mixed waste (HLMW), and mixed transuranic waste (MTRU).

    Tires

     Tires are an ideal feedstock for combustion due to their high carbon content as a primary feedstock or to supplement waste streams that are low in carbon.

     Tires that are recycled into shredded rubber has a limited market. Storing them is a challenge because they take up a lot of space, pose a fire hazard, and are a breeding ground for disease carrying mosquitoes if exposed to rain. Safety burning tires eliminates these environmental hazards and creates energy product.

     Construction and Demolition (C&D)

    Allowed Construction and demolition (C&D) waste is commonly comprised of wood, linoleum, vinyls, asphalt, gypsum, metal, paint, glass, and plastics. Steel, concrete blocks and bricks must be less of 10% weight into the total MSW.

     The halogenated compounds in chlorinated vinyls (i.e. PVC piping) are converted into compounds such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) or chlorine (Cl) that are separated from syngas during gas cleaning.

     Inorganic content melts and is recovered as inert, non-leaching stone for reuse as cement clinker or building aggregate.

     Other construction related waste materials that can be full disposed include roofing shingles, carpet remnants, carpet backing, and insulation.

    Industrial Waste

     Industrial waste is any type of waste produced as a byproduct or result of an industrial process. There is a wide range of materials and substances that come from such practices.

     In contrast to most residential waste, industrial waste is usually collected and disposed of by private companies, and commonly in hazardous waste landfills. According to the EPA, American industry generates and disposes of approximately 7.6 million tons of industrial waste each year.

     This broad category can be subdivided into three types of waste: medical waste, construction and demolition waste, and specialty waste.

   Railroad Ties

    In the U.S. close to 3,000 railroad ties are used per mile of track. Railroad ties, which are predominately constructed of wood, are carbon-rich materials. Railroad ties typically have an energy content of 18-19 megajoules per kilogram of material (MJ/kg), which is roughly 17 to 18 million BTU per metric ton (MMBTU/MT). While there may be some metals in railroad ties, they are easily recovered in FastOx systems as they collect in a molten state at the base of the gasifier. 

    Toxic Waste

     Toxic waste is capable of causing injury or death to living organisms. This includes explosive, poisonous, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative.

     Toxic waste is typically generated by industrial processes, but can also be found in household, office and commercial waste streams like batteries, pesticides, and electronic waste. Toxic waste is an acceptable feedstock for our process. While these waste streams are not optimal, the high temp combustion process renders the constituents of these toxins into syngas and inert stone product. 

    Auto Shredded Residue (ASR)

     There are approximately 185-200 auto shredder residue (ASR) facilities in the U.S. These facilities process automobiles and large appliances into small, more manageable sized materials . Any material remaining after the removal of reusable and recyclable parts is called “ASR” or “auto fluff.”

     ASR contains metals, glass, fiber, rubber, automobile liquids, plastics, and dirt. This waste is classified as hazardous waste as it can contain lead, cadmium and rare earth metals as part of printed circuit boards. As a result, ASR generates higher-than-average tipping fees making it costly as well as difficult to dispose of.

     ASR also yields high levels of energy (up to 10,500 Btu/pound).

     The ASR market is projected to increase given the growing number of cars scrapped each year and the increased use of plastics and computer chips in the production of those cars. 

    Electronic Waste (e-Waste)

     Electronic waste generally consists of information technology (IT) and telecommunications equipment, such as computers, monitors, televisions, mobile phones, etc. 

     Electronic waste commonly contains many precious metals and potentially toxic materials, like rare earth metals, lead, and mercury, that must be sequestered and treated separately. This process is costly and carries a high level of environmental risk.

     Our systems accept eWaste, converting it into energy and capturing the metals and inorganics, which can be extracted and reused.

    For more information on eWaste production and current management methods, please visit the Electronics Take Back Coalition webpage.

    Glass

     Glass, along with other inorganic materials, melts into an inert stone. This output material is safe and can be sold as a construction material, such as cement clinker or road base. It has been tested with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ‘Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedures (TCLP)’ by outside laboratories to ensure that it is non-leaching of heavy metals and therefore salable.

     With full HT combustion, glass and other inorganic materials are quickly melted into an inert stone by hot gases rising from the tuyere zone.     The inert stone is “tapped” from the existing “tapholes” on the lower side of the vessel. Inert stone products can be sold as a construction and building materials, such as cement clinker and road base. It has been proven by an independent entity to be non-leaching of heavy metals and safe for reuse.

    Due to its low carbon content, glass is not recommended as a primary feedstock but is readily accepted as a supplementary feedstock for other high carbon waste streams such as municipal solid waste, biomass, tires, or railroad ties.


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